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About APA


When editors or teachers ask you to write in APA Style, they are referring to the editorial style that many of the social and behavioral sciences have adopted to present written material in the field. APA Style was first developed 80 years ago by a group of social scientists who wished to establish sound standards of communication. Since that time, it has been adopted by leaders in many fields and has been used by writers around the world.

The best scientific writing is spare and straightforward. To achieve this clarity of communication, publishers have developed rules of style. These rules are designed to ensure clear and consistent presentation of written material. Editorial style concerns uniform use of such elements as

  • punctuation and abbreviations
  • construction of tables
  • selection of headings
  • citation of references
  • presentation of statistics
  • APA's style rules and guidelines are set out in a reference book called The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

2013 American Psychological Association




What is MLA Style?


All fields of research agree on the need to document scholarly borrowings, but documentation conventions vary because of the different needs of scholarly disciplines. MLA style for documentation is widely used in the humanities, especially in writing on language and literature. Generally simpler and more concise than other styles, MLA style features brief parenthetical citations in the text keyed to an alphabetical list of works cited that appears at the end of the work.

2013 Modern Language Association


  • Citation Style Guide
  • Modern Language Association Style FAQ
  • The OWL at Purdue



    What is Turabian Style?


    Kate L. Turabian's "Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses and Dissertations" covers two documentation systems: notes-bibliography style (also called bibliography style) and author-date style (also called reference list style). These are basically the same as those described in the Chicago Manual of Style, with minor modifications to meet the needs of student writers. Bibliography style is used in the arts, history and literature. It gives bibliographic information in footnotes or end notes and a bibliography. Author-date style is used in the natural, physical and social sciences. Sources are cited in parentheses within the text by the author's last name and date of publication. The citations are amplified with full bibliographic information in a reference list.

    2014 University of Chicago Press


    Citation Style Guide

    Turabian Quick Guide